The National Capital Park and Planning Commission, forerunner to today’s NCPC, declared most of Shaw, Mount Vernon Square and Triangle, Capitol Hill, Southwest, Buena Vista and other neighborhoods “obsolete” in 1950. Yes, amazingly, they really used that term.
That’s some of the astounding information in the 1950 document Washington, Present and Future from NCPPC. ShawNeighborhood listserv participant RayM scanned a number of pages showing plans to radically remove multi-family dwellings from historic neighborhoods and force the kind of low-density, single-use, less walkable pattern of development that permanently destroyed many urban areas.
What was wrong? People lived in neighborhoods with alley dwellings, some of which were less well maintained. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jane Jacobs talked about how planners in Boston declared the North End a similar “slum” simply because people lived at a certain population density per acre, and the view at the time was that government had to force people to live more spread out.
There are certainly reasons to believe race played a part as well; these neighborhoods were predominantly African-American. The solution, people thought at the time, was to tear down the old neighborhoods and build new ones in the “towers in the park” style of the housing projects we all know and loathe today. Here is their plan for Shaw:
Fortunately for Shaw, a thriving neighborhood with beautiful old row houses and some of DC’s best-preserved carriage homes, most of this plan never came to pass. It largely did, however, in Southwest:
Besides wholesale demolition of neighborhoods, planners tried to push people out of so-called “blighted” neighborhoods with zoning. On Capitol Hill, for instance, the zoning plan wanted to take the fabric of different size buildings coexisting and declare that illegal. Instead, all commerce in the NE quadrant of the Hill would be restricted to H Street, Massachusetts, and a 2-block stretch of 8th, and all multifamily to Maryland Avenue.
They also wanted to widen 11th Street and demolish everything for 2 blocks on either side of East Capitol to create a new extended Mall. (This is the reason that the street between A and C NE is Constitution, not B, and likewise in SE is Independence, even though the original L’Enfant plan called them B Street).
Restore the zoning code to legalize historic neighborhoods
The current DC Zoning Update is rewriting the 1958 zoning code that came from this era. When evaluating it and other proposals, it’s important to recognize that some characteristics of the District today come directly out of explicit “social engineering” decisions that planners pushed on the District at the time.
Rules against accessory dwellings and corner stores, parking minimums and single-use zoning were all efforts to zone many of the people, mostly African-American, out of the neighborhoods. When the Office of Planning suggests relaxing certain rules, often that’s because the rule doesn’t describe what’s in the neighborhood today, or what was there in 1950, since the 1958 code was deliberately trying to zone out historic uses.
Accessory dwellings, corner stores, and more are all ways to let the city be what it naturally grew to be, before people around 1950 decided to force it to change. You can help by joining Pro-DC today.