Our live chat guest today, George Hawkins, is the General Manager of DC Water, the water utility for the District of Columbia.

Hawkins was formerly head of the District Department of the Environment and joined us for a live chat about two years ago. Today, he’s back to discuss lead pipes, the impervious area charge, and whatever else you’d like to ask.

 Live chat with George Hawkins, DC Water(03/15/2011) 
11:54
David Alpert: 
Welcome to our live chat! George Hawkins will be joining us in a few minutes.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 11:54 David Alpert
11:54
David Alpert: 
Meanwhile, please submit your questions. We’ll try to get to as many of them as we can in the hour, and questions that come in early have the best chance of getting asked.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 11:54 David Alpert
11:56
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
Hello everyone, George Hawkins at DC Water standing by to take your questions. I’m delighted to take part in this chat with GGW.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 11:56 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
11:57
David Alpert: 
Welcome! Thanks for joining us.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 11:57 David Alpert
11:58
David Alpert: 
Let me start out by asking this: I am a DC resident. Is my water safe to drink? How can I know?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 11:58 David Alpert
11:59
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
The simple answer is yes, the water is safe to drink. We’ve satisfied all federal standards since 2005. However, our one caveat is that contaminants can get in the system in the portion of the distribution system connected to your home — meaning fixtures in your house, lead solder, etc. If you have any concerns, please call us for a water monitoring test. You can call (202) 612-3440 to talk to our drinking water experts. We also have an FAQ (including our system-wide test results) at http://www.dcwater.com/waterquality.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 11:59 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:03
[Comment From StefanieStefanie: ] 
A couple years ago, the DC government was in the process of replacing lead pipes.  My understanding is that that the project was then abandoned because it was determined that the risk of increasing lead contamination (ie., stirring up the lead) outweighed the benefit of replacing the pipes.  Since my pipes were replaced, does that mean my water supply is at greater risk?  If so, what can we do about that?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:03 Stefanie
12:04
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
Partial replacements (the public line is replaced, but not the private line if it is lead) periodically have a short-term increase in lead in the water after the line is replaced. If you’ve received a partial line replacement and are concerned about lead in the water, please call us for a free monitoring test at (202) 612-3440. Existing testing shows that the levels return to pre-replacement or lower. The orthophosphate in the water (an anti-corrosive) has proven to be an effective inhibitor of lead.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:04 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:04
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
The research still shows that replacing the full lead service line (on the public and private side) is beneficial in reducing lead exposure. Whenever there is a lead source, there is potential for lead in the water.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:04 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:05
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
For now, we only replace lead service lines when we replace water mains (the big pipes that carry water throughout the system). When our crews come through, we encourage homeowners to replace the private side at the same time, using our contractors so it’s cheaper.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:05 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:06
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
We also have a voluntary program, where if a homeowner replaces the private side as part of a renovation, we will do the public side. We have grants and low-interest loans available for low-income customers.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:06 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:08
[Comment From StefanieStefanie: ] 
If the private line had previously be replaced, do you still get the temporary lead increase when the public line is changed?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:08 Stefanie
12:10
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
It’s unclear, but the safe step is to assume that it would and take precautions. There may be a temporary spike, but it would only be because cutting and replacing the public side would leave shavings. Flushing would solve the problem.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:10 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:10
David Alpert: 
Thanks. We might come back to this lead pipe issue but a few people wanted to ask about plastic waste for people who don’t use your services for everything. 
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:10 David Alpert
12:11
[Comment From Tom SherwoodTom Sherwood: ] 
Given environmental waste, what is the future of plastic bottled water? Will there be bans, deposit fees?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:11 Tom Sherwood
12:12
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
We hope there’s much less of a future for bottled water than there has been a past — at least when not for emergencies. We’re focused on restoring public confidence in tap water, and making it more available in public places. For an analysis of the benefits of tap vs. bottled (including the incredible cost savings), please visit http://www.dcwater.com/tap
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:12 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:13
David Alpert: 
Another related question:
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:13 David Alpert
12:13
[Comment From WHands80WHands80: ] 
Is DC Water working to combat the “Water Club/Water Cooler” culture in DC? It’s horribly inefficient to drive H2O from PA. Instead, a better way to get drinking H2O is to filter on-site & let the existing pipes & gravity do the transportation.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:13 WHands80
12:13
David Alpert: 
Besides the Web site, what is DC Water doing to restore this confidence?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:13 David Alpert
12:14
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
We agree completely, WHands80. In fact, we provide guidance on filters for those interested. We’re also starting a bottled v. tap education campaign, including taste testing at community events. We’re working to make free water refills accessible in public — more on that in the weeks and months to come. (more)
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:14 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:15
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
The complete contents of DC tap water and every municipal water system are available online and go out in the mail to every address. You never know what’s in that bottle, because the companies who manufacture them aren’t required to tell you.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:15 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:16
David Alpert: 
Taste testing seems great, but it’s not the taste necessarily that many people are worried about. Are there ways for people to easily test bottled water? Cheap household testers?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:16 David Alpert
12:17
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
There isn’t an easy way that we’re aware of. Our water is tested in advanced labs using techniques that can’t be done at home, which is one of the advantages of tap water. It would be great for customers to encourage more transparency in the bottled water industry — either in the form of voluntary or regulated disclosure.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:17 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:19
David Alpert: 
We got a Zero Water filtering pitcher which comes with some kind of tester, but I don’t know how good it is. However, it shows something like 006 on water that comes out of there, and more like 400-something on the water from our tap (and similarly high from the water from our fridge filter). Is this testing something real or is it some kind of gimmick?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:19 David Alpert
12:21
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
Tap water contains particulates that aren’t necessarily harmful, but are measured by that test and removed by the filter. Some of those are added during the drinking water treatment process, to make sure the water is clean and safe. From our perspective, this is a good filter, but there is no safety comparison between it and unfiltered water.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:21 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:23
David Alpert: 
A lot of people are trying different filters. Some people I know have whole house filters. Others have under-sink ones, or pitcher ones. Should people worried about water quality get these? Can you provide any guidance on what to think about?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:23 David Alpert
12:24
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
Yes, we can. The most important thing is that filters are certified by the National Sanitation Foundation, which would show an NSF-certified logo on the package. Every filter is certified to remove different contaminants, so the first thing is to decide what you want to remove and make sure you get the right kind. For lead, you want Standard 53. (more)
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:24 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:25
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
We typically don’t recommend whole-house filters, because they remove chlorine or chloramine and you don’t have disinfection protection for your household pipes. We see bacterial growth in these kinds of situations. The better thing to do is filter where you’re using the water. (Point of use, rather than point of entry.) We have a water filter guide on our website at http://www.dcwater.com/waterquality. Be sure to replace cartridges as recommended by manufacturer — otherwise water quality can be worsened.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:25 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:27
David Alpert: 
Thanks, that’s helpful. One last question on safety. I appreciate the thorough testing you seem to do. Still, as a resident who is worried about water quality, I am concerned about just saying the water meets government standards. Aren’t the standards kind of lenient? After all, the CDC said DC’s water was safe when it really wasn’t. And I know you weren’t there at the time, but your organization was not exactly honest at certain times. How do we know that this apparent safety is real?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:27 David Alpert
12:28
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
Excellent question. We have adopted a strategy to go beyond regulatory requirements. We aim to meet stricter target levels than required by EPA. And though we’re meeting them, we always aim to be lower. We are providing filters and monitoring during lead service replacement, which we didn’t do before. As science continues to advance, we are able to detect more things in the water than we once could, but that doesn’t necessarily mean a health risk. (more)
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:28 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:30
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
Our perspective is that protecting the public health is the most important task we face. We now take a protective measure first even when the risk is not fully known (such as a boil water alert in 2009 in Shepherd Park, and the do-not-use advisory in Upper Northwest in 2010, neither of which were scenarios where public health was actually impacted). We’re also working closely with water-quality advocates on our public outreach, and we’re engaged in independent research to advance science outside of the regulatory framework.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:30 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:30
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
We can and will always do better.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:30 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:30
David Alpert: 
OK, enough on lead and other contaminants. Some people wanted to ask about infrastructure.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:30 David Alpert
12:30
[Comment From Ms VMs V: ] 
There are several miles of sewer & water pipes that are past their useful life.  What is the plan to replace those pipes & how long will it take? Are there new technologies to sustain the system?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:30 Ms V
12:32
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
We love this question. This is a nationwide crisis of epic proportion — as the American Society of Civil Engineers recently ranked water and sewer infrastructure as a D-. That’s actually generous. In the District, the Board of DC Water has tripled our replacement rate to double the national average, or 1 percent of our system a year. This still isn’t fast enough, and our view is there should be massive federal infrastructure investment — just like for roads and bridges — to upgrade a system that sustains life.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:32 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:33
[Comment From Michael PMichael P: ] 
How do Federal buildings and property contribute financially to the local water system?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:33 Michael P
12:34
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
The federal government is a customer, certainly one of our largest. (If you added all the federal accounts and agencies together, it would be the biggest.) At one point the federal government threatened not to pay a significant portion of the bill (the IAC), but a significant effort by the local congressional delegations reversed that decision. The vast majority of the federal money we receive is through rates, not direct appropriation.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:34 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:35
[Comment From Ken ArcherKen Archer: ] 
You have said that much of the problem with clean water in urban areas like DC is ultimately caused by upstream pollution, such that filtering by water agencies is like playing a game of wackamole.  That makes sense to me.  Why don’t big city water agency heads ban together, like big city schools chancellors have, to speak with a common, louder voice on this issue?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:35 Ken Archer
12:37
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
We do have a Money Matters Task Force, which is the big-city water agencies banded together. The task force just hosted a congressional day here in the District, focusing on the costs borne by urban ratepayers. There’s no question that the lion’s share of water pollution today comes from nonpoint sources (such as suburban parking lots and rural agriculture), not wastewater treatment plants. You’re right that our industry needs to speak with a unified and stronger voice.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:37 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:37
David Alpert: 
And on a related note:
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:37 David Alpert
12:37
[Comment From Geoff H.Geoff H.: ] 
Another question - could you describe the relationship DC Water has with WSSC. This is probably delicate territory, but what could be done to make the relationship even better?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:37 Geoff H.
12:38
David Alpert: 
(WSSC is the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission, the water utility in Maryland suburbs outside DC.)
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:38 David Alpert
12:39
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
It’s not delicate at all! WSSC is our largest wholesale customer — meaning a customer whose wastewater we collect and treat. So the suburban jurisdictions served by WSSC are actually having their wastewater treated here at Blue Plains in the District, but not paying a bill to us directly like a customer in the District would. For example, suburban customers (including WSSC) fund 60 percent of the upgrades at Blue Plains itself. It’s calculated by volume.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:39 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:39
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
(We believe Geoff H visited us recently on a tour.)
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:39 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:39
David Alpert: 
(And Geoff got a neat map, which unfortunately then some federal agency asked us to take down.)
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:39 David Alpert
12:39
[Comment From Eric FEric F: ] 
To what degree can bio-retention features in new streets alleviate the CSO problem? Should street reconstruction in the combined sewer area of DC minimize immediate run-off?  I feel that if DDOT and DC Water were one agency, this would be a standard road design policy by now since there is a big financial incentive to reduce storm water surges on the combined sewer system.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:39 Eric F
12:40
David Alpert: 
Also, Geoff says:
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:40 David Alpert
12:40
[Comment From Geoff H.Geoff H.: ] 
I visited the Bryan Street pumping station - and I’m looking forward to a visit to Blue Plains very soon!
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:40 Geoff H.
12:41
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
Low-impact development is most effective at capturing first flush in rain events. We agree that LID should be an integral part of street and neighborhood design, in both combined-sewer and separate-sewer parts of the city. Our Clean Rivers Project to virtually eliminate overflow has to handle such huge volumes in large rain events that LID is unlikely to be able to do the trick by itself. (http://www.dcwater.com/cleanrivers)
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:41 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:42
[Comment From Neil FlanaganNeil Flanagan: ] 
DC Water owns some very nice property that is inaccessible to the public. Do you see a possibility for opening up some of those areas to public use? What would it take for DC Water to try something novel, such as building a driving range over a filtration park, as New York City is doing now?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:42 Neil Flanagan
12:43
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
Thanks for the compliment! Obviously, security issues for the water system are paramount. You might be thinking of the McMillan complex in Northwest, which is actually part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington Aqueduct. Our Main and O pumping station by the baseball stadium is an historic property, and we’re looking for ways to make that a better part of the community.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:43 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:44
David Alpert: 
Some people wanted to ask about plastic bottles and specifically about deposits.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:44 David Alpert
12:44
[Comment From AlexAlex: ] 
What about bottle collection? What’s the future of bottle collection in D.C. and what kind of obstacles does D.C. Water foresee? Do they think a successful bottle collection program is possible?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:44 Alex
12:44
[Comment From Geoff H.Geoff H.: ] 
can we cycle back to the question about bottle deposits - I know that there was a push in the past to get a deposit (like they have in Michigan where I grew up), but it was shot down by a coalition that enlisted churches and others to claim it was racially motivated, etc. Long story short - much of this would cover things other than bottled water, but those bottles pollute a lot of the waterways DC Water is trying to keep clean (Anacostia, Rock Creek, Watts Branch, etc.). Would you be in favor of a bottle deposit?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:44 Geoff H.
12:45
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
This is probably a better question for the DC Department of Public Works, but the bag bill (which I began implementing before I left DDOE) is a great example of how legislation can change behavior to benefit the environment. Under the right circumstances, DC Water would absolutely support a bottle deposit bill. We spend about $500,000 a year on boats that pull trash out of our rivers, and a lot of it is bottles!
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:45 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:46
[Comment From TMTM: ] 
Can you give us a brief update on the massive Combined Sewer Separation Project? Do you know whenthe work on Q St. in Georgetown will be done?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:46 TM
12:48
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
For TM: The massive project is the tunneling project, but a small portion is sewer separation. O and P Street just started, and goes from Wisconsin to 33rd. We are replacing water mains in conjunction with DDOT street restoration. The project has its own website, which we believe is fixingoandpstreets.com. It gets updated every Tuesday. For more information about our big tunneling project, please visit http://www.dcwater.com/cleanrivers. We break ground on the first tunnel in the spring!
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:48 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:48
[Comment From Adam LAdam L: ] 
The story in the District I’ve heard is that much of the infrastructure in the District (like the sewer sysetm) was put in following the Civil War and that much of that original system is still in place. Can that possibly be true? I know that there is an ongoing effort to separate out the storm drainage system from the sewers (primarily in the rebuilt downtown area) but does DC seriously have 130-year-old infrastructure still in use?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:48 Adam L
12:50
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
Yes. The median age of a water main in the District is 77 years, and sewers are slightly older. About 120 miles of the system went in the ground before 1900, with another three miles or so predating the Civil War. This is not uncommon in older cities around the country. And it’s a main reason why we have 400+ water main breaks in an average year.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:50 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:50
David Alpert: 
Speaking of that:
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:50 David Alpert
12:50
[Comment From Michael PMichael P: ] 
What’s the long term strategy for addressing the recent water main failures?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:50 Michael P
12:51
David Alpert: 
There’s the big CSO project, but what else in the meantime?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:51 David Alpert
12:51
David Alpert: 
Renee has a similar question:
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:51 David Alpert
12:51
[Comment From ReneeRenee: ] 
George: I understand that DC Water is undertaking a large tunneling project to reduce CSOs, but that it will take years for the good results to be achieved - what are you doing in the short-term to improve our waterways?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:51 Renee
12:52
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
The long-term strategy is to keep increasing our capital improvement program to replace these as quickly as we can. We are using analytics to target the best use of the dollars. We also have to beg our customers’ patience, because even replacing 1 percent of the water pipes in a year is 11 miles. That’s a lot of torn up roads and traffic delays.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:52 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:52
David Alpert: 
Michael also said:
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:52 David Alpert
12:52
[Comment From Michael PMichael P: ] 
I fail to see how replacing 1% per year keeps a system together unless the components last 100 years, which they don’t.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:52 Michael P
12:53
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
In addition to the skimmer boats we already mentioned, we’ve reduced the amount of overflows 40 percent just within the sewer system itself. We’re reducing the number of nutrients going into the Potomac every year and are consistently meeting or exceeding our Chesapeake Bay goals — to the tune of $1 billion in the last 10 years in upgrading Blue Plains.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:53 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:54
David Alpert: 
OK, in the last few minutes I want to get back to a few more water quality questions.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:54 David Alpert
12:54
[Comment From Ken ArcherKen Archer: ] 
I think that, given the history of WASA before you took the reigns, many DC residents trust VA Tech researcher Marc Edwards (whose tests of DC water were found to be more accurate than WASA’s) above all when it comes to the safety of DC water.  Yet Prof Edwards has yet to say publicly that our water is safe to drink.  Have you asked him what DC Water needs to do for him to declare our water safe to drink?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:54 Ken Archer
12:55
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
We have not asked that explicit question, but we have recently partnered directly with Virginia Tech and Dr. Edwards on a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation study to evaluate how to effectively sample for lead in District households, and how to effectively communicate with customers on the issue. 
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:55 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:56
[Comment From GuestGuest: ] 
When will we be able to safely swim in the Potomac, Anacostia, Rock Creek and other local waterways?  Wasn’t that part of the point of the Clean Water Act?  What is it going to take to get to this level of water quality?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:56 Guest
12:57
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
This is an issue we handled extensively when I was the director of DDOE. Our plan for the Anacostia, for example, targeted 2032 as the answer to your question. The CWA has been very successful at reducing pollutants from plants like Blue Plains or those that manufacture. But the new challenge is nonpoint sources, like agriculture and suburban runoff. While DC Water has a role, and a big one, in keeping these waterways clean, our neighbors do too. And we strongly believe it’s not just up to our ratepayers to foot the bill.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:57 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
12:58
David Alpert: 
As a ratepayer, I agree! :)
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:58 David Alpert
12:58
David Alpert: 
Let’s finish with one more question from a ratepayer:
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:58 David Alpert
12:58
[Comment From Ryan PatrickRyan Patrick: ] 
I do not have an AMR meter.  My bill is estimated when I call to have a service person come read my meter and reconcile the bill, why should I not be refunded the difference for your incorrect guess? In fact, they noted to put in a new meter I would have to pay a plumber to put new fittings (5-way) so DC Water could then put in their new AMR meter.  Does DC Water not have any licensed plumbers who can fix this, and what does that have anything to do with reconciling my bill?
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:58 Ryan Patrick
12:58
David Alpert: 
(An AMR meter is a meter the utility doesn’t have to come read in person, but can get the information electronically, I believe.)
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:58 David Alpert
12:59
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
This is probably too specific for us to get into a general answer, but please contact my office directly at gmsuggestions@dcwater.com, and we’ll get the top people in our Customer Service departments on the case to help you.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 12:59 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
1:00
David Alpert: 
Well, that’s all the time we have, but thanks so much for joining us! And thanks to everyone who submitted great questions!
Tuesday March 15, 2011 1:00 David Alpert
1:01
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
I’m sorry we didn’t get to everyone’s questions. This is a great way to interact with our customers. The others are Facebook, Twitter (@mydcwater), with the email address I just mentioned, or by phone. Our customer service office is (202) 354-3600, and our 24-hour emergency command center is (202) 612-3400. Finally, we have town halls in every ward that just started. Let us hear from you in person! Details at http://www.dcwater.com/rates. Let’s do this again soon.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 1:01 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
1:01
David Alpert: 
Also, thanks to Alan Heymann who was typing in George’s answers. Alan clearly wins the award for fastest typist of any GGW chat ever!
Tuesday March 15, 2011 1:01 David Alpert
1:02
George S. Hawkins, DC Water: 
(Knuckles cracking.)
Tuesday March 15, 2011 1:02 George S. Hawkins, DC Water
1:02
David Alpert: 
Thanks again to both of you. Readers, you can continue the discussion in the comments section.
Tuesday March 15, 2011 1:02 David Alpert
1:02
 

 
 
 

David Alpert is Founder and President of Greater Greater Washington and Executive Director of DC Sustainable Transportation (DCST). He worked as a Product Manager for Google for six years and has lived in the Boston, San Francisco, and New York metro areas in addition to Washington, DC. He lives with his wife and two children in Dupont Circle. Unless otherwise noted, opinions in his GGWash posts are his and not the official views of GGWash or DCST.