Fancy office towers, hotels, museums, and tourist attractions line the contours of Baltimore’s Chesapeake Bay harborfront. So too, do massive parking garages and interstate-sized roadways that feed them. What does the future hold? According to a new plan, still more parking.
A waterfront parking garage at Baltimore’s Inner Harbor. All photos by the author.
Like much of America, Baltimore waterfront development since the age of cars has been designed for the age of cars. That looks likely to continue as the waterfront grows.
The Greater Baltimore Committee and Waterfront Partnership hired architecture firm Ayers Saint Gross to prepare Inner Harbor 2.0, an overarching new plan for reinvigorating Baltimore’s Inner Harbor waterfront.
The Director of Landscape Architecture for Ayers Saint Gross, Jonathon Ceci, said about a parcel of harborfront currently covered by beach volleyball courts, “The site is basically an island cut off from the rest of the Inner Harbor. Besides Key Highway [on one side], you’ve got the water [on the other side] and a lack of parking garages. The question was, how do you make it a magnet for urban activity?”
How does Ceci plan to create “a magnet for urban activity”? Apparently, with parking garages. The Inner Harbor 2.0 plan recommends a $20 million garage on this waterfront site at a public cost of $12-14 million.
Baltimoreans should question the line of thinking that big garages are the best magnets for urban activity. Big garages and wide roads go hand in hand. They create the “island effect” that Mr. Ceci wants to eliminate.
Baltimore’s near waterfront has more high-rise parking spaces than high-rise residential units with waterfront views. There are at least 6 waterfront parking garages, and at least 14 large parking garages within one block of the waterfront. At least 9 parking garages rise to between 7 and 12 stories tall. The waterfront has around 4,500 parking spaces already planned or under construction: 4,000 at the Horseshoe casino and about 500 at Rash field.
Meanwhile, the one-way street pairs adjacent to the harbor have 10 lanes of through traffic, while at many times, cars cannot make it through a light in one cycle. Baltimore has used these streets for 180-mile per hour races.
What Baltimore’s waterfront has gained by attracting tens of thousands of cars it might have lost by being unfriendly to pedestrians, bicyclists, urban livability, and more local populations. Walkers can enjoy a promenade ringing the water, but to venture inland, they have to cross many lanes of unfriendly traffic. These physical road barriers separate the water from Baltimore’s traditional downtown and may limit economic development from more easily sweeping inland.
A family racing from the Inner Harbor to safety.
Ironically, all the car infrastructure may not make car driving easy. Supersized roads and garages contribute to congestion that can offset cars’ theoretical time-saving advantages. Driving across town and up and down garages sometimes is slower than walking and bicycling. The business case for more parking erodes if corresponding congestion leads to traffic jams and stress.
Rush hour traffic near Baltimore’s Inner Harbor.
By adding four high frequency Charm City Circulator bus routes, Baltimore has made progress. It can do much more to shift the balance.
Here are some additional ideas to consider near the waterfront:
- Create an app that directs cars to affordable satellite parking spaces.
- Create a tax on new parking garages and dedicate the revenue to non-automotive transportation.
- Let developers choose to pay into an alternative transportation fund instead of building parking as required by zoning.
- Encourage parking at outlying transit stations that serve downtown.
- Re-introduce and enforce bus-only lanes downtown.
- Create peripheral park & ride lots with frequently departing shuttles servicing downtown, similar to the way airport shuttles work.
- Create iconic Inner Harbor bus shelters.
- Operate Camden Line trains on weekends for special events and Orioles games.
- Ask the Orioles to reward fans for not bringing a car.
- Create a discounted MTA family pass.
- Ask downtown employers to create financial incentives for employees to not bring a car.
- Build Pratt Street and Key Highway cycletracks to support bicyclists and bikeshare.
- Add Charm City Circulator routes to South Baltimore, Canton, the Casino parking garage, and new park & ride locations.
- Make sure the east-west Red Line moves forward.
Baltimore’s waterfront must be accessible to people who own cars. However, with more affordable, safe, and convenient alternatives, some drivers would be happy to visit the city’s downtown waterfront, while leaving the car outside of the city center.